THINKING IN EDUCATION

Teaching Components:    acquisition of skill, acquiring information, training of thinking

THINKING AS AN EXPERIENCE

  • pupils must engage and “have a genuine situation of experience”
  • thinking is challenged as not being limited to pondering in isolation
  • can involve trial and error (like “learn by doing it wrong”)

“They give the pupils something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is of a nature as to demand thinking, or the intentional noting of connections; learning naturally results.”

GENUINE PROBLEM

  • “a genuine problem […] as a stimulus to thought”
  • the teacher should create “a context of experience in which problems naturally suggest themselves”
  • does not overemphasize memorization and regurgitation in examination

“The accumulation and acquisition of information for purposes of reproduction in recitation and examination is made too much of.”

BASE OF INFORMATION AND OBSERVATION SKILLS

  • the known data should arouse suggestions from which there can be originality of thought
  • intellectual constructiveness: acting as a ‘discoverer’ building from prior knowledge

APPLICATIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE

  • thoughts are incomplete until applied where they gain “full meaning and a sense of their reality”
  • if pupils cannot own and apply the content they are learning, they learn to work the system and BS the work, failing to truly learn

“And the attitudes which spring from getting used to and accepting half-understood and ill-digested material weaken vigor and efficiency in thought.”

“The best type of teaching […] puts the student in the habitual attitude of finding points of contact and mutual bearings.”